According to FASHIONISSUPREME, the revolutionary ferment following the withdrawal of L. Chacón continued in 1931, until he seized power, on February 14, the gen. Jorge Ubico. The question raised by the recognition of the revolutionary government of gen. MH Martínez in El Salvador by Costa Rica, leading her to denounce the treaty of 1923 between the republics of Central America, led to the meeting of a new conference, which met in Guatemala city in April 1935, but did not reach conclusions relatively to the main problems. In June a plebiscite confirmed the office of the Ubico for the period 1937-43 and in July the constitution in force since 1928 was partially modified.
After feeling the effects of the “great depression”, Guatemala saw its economic situation improve, but suffered from Brazil’s measures regarding the coffee trade (main export product) until the international agreement of November 1940, which granted it to export 535,000 bags of 60 kg to the United States. (versus 453,866 in 1938).
In April 1938 the treaty for the regulation of the borders with El Salvador was concluded and on May 26 the withdrawal of Guatemala from the League of Nations became definitive. Starting in 1939, measures began to be taken against National Socialist organizations and German propaganda, with between 55 and 60% of the coffee plantations being in Germanic hands. Proclaimed its neutrality at the outbreak of war in Europe, Guatemala in 1939 denounced the treaty of 1859 with Great Britain for the borders with British Honduras, and therefore claimed that “territory of Belize”. The war also disrupted trade relations with Germany, to the further advantage of the United States. Therefore, once the Ubico was reconfirmed in office in September 1941, for the period 1943-49, Guatemala followed a policy of full cooperation with the United States, declaring war on Japan, Germany and Italy in December. But the economic difficulties inherent in the war forced the adoption of restrictive measures which caused discontent. On June 22, 1944, the Ubico suspended constitutional freedoms by attaching a Nazi-Fascist plot. The ensuing general strike forced Ubico (1 July) to resign, after announcing the redemption of foreign debts in dollars and pounds. The government switched to one by attaching a Nazi-Fascist conspiracy, constitutional freedoms suspended. The ensuing general strike forced Ubico (1 July) to resign, after announcing the redemption of foreign debts in dollars and pounds. The government switched to one by attaching a Nazi-Fascist conspiracy, constitutional freedoms suspended. The ensuing general strike forced Ubico (1 July) to resign, after announcing the redemption of foreign debts in dollars and pounds. The government switched to one junta of 3 generals, including vice-president F. Ponce, elected by the assembly, provisional president, on the 4th. He wanted to continue the Ubico foreign policy, but called elections for December. But the unrest continued after the return from exile of the former candidate JJ Arévalo, above all for the fear that the Ponce wanted to cancel the elections and recall the Ubico; Ponce was deposed but quietly left to leave for Mexico. The new junta (cap. F. Arbenz, Maj. FS Araña and J. Toriello) sentenced Ubico to exile (who died on June 15, 1946), then dissolved the legislative assembly and held the new elections from which, in December, l’Arévalo was released as president.
The latter came into operation on March 15, 1945, after the Constituent Assembly, which met in January, approved the new constitution. But the new regime had to defend itself against tenacious opponents, resorting to the state of siege, in April, for 30 days and, in October, for 60, arresting and exiling the leaders of the opposition. In January 1945 diplomatic relations with Spain were broken, in April they were tightened with the Soviet Union; in September Guatemala recognized the Spanish republican government in exile, in October it approved the United Nations pact. From the beginning of the year, relations with El Salvador improved, a prelude to the elimination of passports and the abolition of customs barriers between the two countries, agreed in May 1946, also inviting Nicaragua,
In the interior, the admission of foreigners to economic activities was restricted, and attempts were made to limit the action of trade unions of workers and farmers; but the foreign companies were not expropriated (indeed the proponent J. Toriello left the ministry): among them the North American United Fruit (owner of the largest banana plantations) suffered from a long strike in 1946, which was terminated by the government through arbitration, on October 31st. Meanwhile, a vast plan of social reform was being drawn up, deposits of iron, lead, zinc, mica, quartz and petroleum were discovered.
As early as September 1945 Guatemala had reopened the discussion on the question of British Honduras. In the following January, Britain declared that it was prepared to submit the dispute to the International Court of Justice. But the nationalistic turmoil continued, and the British government dispatched cruiser Sheffield to Belize in February 1948, followed by Devonshire. Guatemala immediately protested to the United Nations, provoking a lively response from E. Bevin to the Municipalities (March 3); on April 3, Guatemala rejected any proposed arbitration as long as British military forces remained in a “territory that belonged to Guatemala”. The issue was discussed at the Inter-American Conference in Bogotá.